Historical Operating Systems: Xerox GlobalView

Author’s Note: The demonstrations in this article are based on Xerox GlobalView 2.1, the final release of the operating system and used a software collection available from among the links here: http://toastytech.com/guis/indexlinks.html

Xerox is not a name which one would usually associate with computing, being far more well-known for their photocopying enterprise. For this reason, it is somewhat bizarre to look at the history of Xerox and realise that through their PARC (Palo Alto Research Center), Xerox were one of the most revolutionary computer designers of all time. Their first design, the Alto minicomputer, was released in 1973 and introduced a functioning GUI, complete with WYSIWYG word processing and graphical features more than ten years before the first developments by any other company. Indeed, the Alto represented the concept of the personal computer several years before even the Apple II, Atari 8-bit family and the Radio Shack TRS-80 arrived in that sector and at a time when most computers still had switches and blinkenlights on their front panels.

The Alto was never sold as a commercial product, instead being distributed throughout Xerox itself and to various universities and research facilities. Xerox released their first commercial product, the Xerox 8010 workstation (later known as the Star) in 1981, but by that stage, they had presented their product to many other people, including Apple’s Steve Jobs and Microsoft’s Bill Gates. Microsoft and Apple would soon release their own GUI operating systems, based heavily on the work of Xerox PARC’s research and ultimately would compete to dominate the market for personal computer operating systems while Xerox’s work remained a footnote in their success.

The Xerox Star was relatively unsuccessful, selling in the tens of thousands. Part of the reason for the lack of success for the Xerox Star, despite its technical advantages, was the fact that a single Star workstation cost approximately $16,000 in 1981, $6,000 more than the similarly unsuccessful Apple Lisa and more than $10,000 more than the Macintosh 128k when that was released in 1984. Consequently, the people who could have made most immediate use of a GUI operating system, including graphic designers, typically couldn’t afford it, while those that could afford it were more likely in the market for computers more suited to data processing, like VAX minicomputers or IBM System/3 midrange computers.

Nevertheless, Xerox continued to market the Star throughout the early 1980s. In 1985, the expensive 8010 workstation was replaced with the less expensive and more powerful 6085 PCS on a different hardware platform. The operating system and application software was rewritten as well for better performance, being renamed to ViewPoint. By this stage, though, the Apple Macintosh was severely undercutting even its own stablemate, the Lisa, let alone Xerox’s competing offering. Meanwhile, GUI operating environments were beginning to pop up elsewhere, with the influential Visi On office suite already on IBM-compatible PCs and Microsoft Windows due to arrive at the end of the year, not to mention the release of the Commodore Amiga and the Atari ST.

Eventually, Xerox stopped producing specialised hardware for their software and rewrote it for IBM PC-compatible computers – along with Sun Microsystem’s Solaris – in a form called GlobalView. Since the Xerox Star and ViewPoint software was written in a language called Mesa – later an influence on Java and Niklaus Wirth’s Modula-2 language – GlobalView originally required an add-on card to facilitate the Mesa environment, but in its final release ran as a layer on top of Windows 3.1, 95 or 98 via an emulator.

As a consequence of running in this emulated environment, Xerox GlobalView 2.1 is not a fast operating system. It takes several minutes to boot on the VirtualBox installation of Windows 3.1 which I used for the process, most of which seems to be I/O-dependent, since the host operating system runs about as fast as Windows 3.1 actually can on any computer. The booting process is also rather sparse and cryptic, with the cursor temporarily replaced with a set of four digits, the meaning of which is only elucidated on within difficult-to-find literature on GlobalView’s predecessors.

Once the booting process is complete, one of the first things that you may notice is that the login screen doesn’t hide the fact that Xerox fully intended this system to be networked among several computers. This was a design decision that persisted from the original Star all the way back in 1981 and even further back with the Alto. Since I don’t have a network to use the system with, I simply entered an appropriate username and password and continued on, whereby the system booted up like any other single-user GUI operating system.

Looking at screenshots of the Xerox Star and comparing it with the other early GUI systems that I have used, I can imagine how amazing something like the Xerox Star looked in 1981 when it was released. It makes the Apple Lisa look vaguely dismal in comparison, competes very well with the Apple Macintosh in elegance and blows the likes of Visi On and Microsoft Windows 1.0 out of the water. Xerox GlobalView retains that same look, but by 1996, the lustre had faded and GlobalView looks rather dated and archaic in comparison to Apple’s System 7 or Windows 95. Nevertheless, GlobalView still has a well-designed and consistent GUI.

globalview1

Astounding in 1981, but definitely old-fashioned by 1996.

GlobalView’s method of creating files is substantially different to that used by modern operating systems and bizarrely resembles the method used by the Apple Lisa. Instead of opening an application, creating a file and saving it, there is a directory containing a set of “Basic Icons”, which comprise blank documents for the various types of documents available, including word processor documents, paint “canvases” and new folders. This is similar to the “stationery paper” model used by the Lisa Office System, although GlobalView doesn’t extend the office metaphor that far.

Creating a new document involves chording (pressing both left and right mouse buttons at the same time) a blank icon in the Basic Icons folder, selecting the Copy option and clicking the left mouse button over the place where you wish to place the icon. Once the icon has been placed, the new document can be opened in much the same way that it may be opened on any newer PC operating system. By default, documents are set to display mode and you need to actually click a button to allow them to be edited.

GlobalView can be installed as an environment by itself, but is far more useful when you install the series of office applications that come with it. As with any good office suite, there is a word processor and a spreadsheet application, although since the Xerox Star pre-dated the concept of computerised presentations, there is no equivalent to Microsoft’s PowerPoint included. There is also a raster paint program, a database application and an email system, among others.

It’s difficult to talk about GlobalView without considering its historical line of descent and it’s clear that while the Xerox Star presented a variety of remarkable advances in GUI design, by 1996, GlobalView was being developed to placate the few remaining organisations who had staked their IT solutions on Xerox’s offerings in the past. The applications no longer had any sort of advances over the competition. In many cases, they feel clunky – the heavy requirement on the keyboard in the word processor is one example, made more unfriendly to the uninitiated by not following the standard controls that had arisen in IBM PC-compatibles and Macintoshes. Still, considering the historical context once again, these decisions feel idiosyncratic rather than clearly wrong.

globalview2

The paint program isn’t too bad, though.

Using GlobalView makes me wonder what might have become of personal computing if Xerox had marketed their products better – if in fact they could have marketed them better. Of course, even by the standards of the operating systems that were around by the last version of GlobalView, the interface and applications had dated, but that interface had once represented the zenith of graphical user interface design. Like the Apple Lisa, the Xerox Star and its successors represent a dead-end in GUI design and one that might have led to some very interesting things if pursued further.

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Historical Operating Systems: The Apple Lisa and the Lisa Office System (a.k.a. 7/7)

While the Macintosh is by far the most successful of Apple’s personal computing endeavours, it was not the first of their systems to introduce a graphical user interface. The Apple Lisa, an expensive computer designed for a professional environment, pre-dated it by a year. However, while the original Macintosh line immediately became an icon of the 1980s, the Lisa was not a sales success and now languishes in obscurity. From a computer history point of view, the Lisa is still a very interesting machine despite its failure in the market place, with a desktop paradigm distinctly different from that of rival computers, including the Macintosh, and one that has not been replicated – in a complete form, at least – to this day.

The Apple Lisa was the first entirely new computer from Apple since their ill-fated Apple III, which had been aimed at the business market rather than the home market occupied by the Apple II. The Apple III had suffered from instability and poor hardware engineering, including a worrying set of problems associated with heat, which caused the solder connections inside the computer to melt, displacing the chips from their slots and causing the computer to fail. Its operating system, Apple SOS, was also not compatible with the Apple DOS versions that were popular on the Apple II, which made it more difficult for users to use their pre-existing software and for developers to port over their programs to the more sophisticated Apple III hardware.

The Lisa project had started before the Apple III was released, and it had originally been intended as an improvement on the Apple II design. However, when Steve Jobs visited Xerox PARC in 1979, he was inspired by their nascent GUI technology which Xerox themselves had not successfully been able to market. Apple adapted the GUI technology for their own purposes as the Lisa’s development progressed.

The Lisa was released in January 1983, and as the second computer ever to be commercially released with a GUI operating system, after Xerox’s Star workstation, it presented a completely different vision of computing to the public than had been seen before. When the vast majority of personal computers presented a text-based interface to their users, usually starting with a BASIC interpreter, the GUI of the Lisa was revolutionary. What’s more, unlike the Xerox Star, which was intended to be bought as part of a networked collection of servers, clients and peripherals, the Lisa was designed as a single-user workstation for individual business users, making it rather more affordable than the Xerox machine.

Apple_Lisa

The Apple Lisa, complete with the ProFile external hard drive.

The hardware of the Lisa centred around the Motorola 68000 processor, which would later become popular among many of the competitors in the mid-to-late 1980s cycle of personal computers, including the Amiga, Atari ST, Sharp X68000 and the Macintosh itself. However, while most of those later computers used a 68000 processor clocked at approximately 8 MHz, the Lisa’s processor was a rather less impressive 5 MHz, which might have compared favourably against the MOS 6502 and Zilog Z80 processors of home computers, but was mediocre in a graphical workstation and let down the Lisa’s performance, leaving it feeling sluggish at times.

Also provided was one megabyte of RAM, substantially more than provided in any home computer of the time and more than the maximum addressable by the IBM PC, along with two 5.25” floppy drives which used a proprietary disc format. An optional accessory was an external hard drive of either 5 MB or 10 MB capacity, which connected to the Lisa’s parallel port interface. This allowed for the installation of the operating system, along with a decent amount of storage for documents.

The operating system itself, the Lisa Office System (later named 7/7), was the most interesting component of the Apple Lisa project. The Lisa OS was an advanced operating system for 1983, with many components that looked ahead of the time when compared to the text-based home computers of the early 1980s. Aside from the GUI itself, which would be quickly copied by the computer companies that survived into the mid-1980s, the Lisa OS provided cooperative multitasking, which would not be present in the Macintosh until the release of System Software 5 in the late 1980s, and virtual memory, which the Macintosh only got in the 1990s with the release of System 7.

The Lisa Office System was delivered with seven application programs (thus explaining the later name of 7/7 for the Lisa OS). Comprising a large set of office-oriented software, it could be considered one of the first office suites ever designed. The suite was formed of a spreadsheet program, a vector graphics program, a graph and chart generator, a list-based database program, a project management program, a terminal application and a word processor, effectively resolving the usual domains of the office suite. It’s interesting to see how close this set of software is to the office suites of today as well; there are some needs in computing that have changed drastically more in scope than in the general presentation of the programs used.

One of the most peculiar and distinctive things about the Lisa Office System was its approach to how files were created and manipulated. Whereas in Microsoft Windows and the Unix/Unix-like systems, there is an application-centric approach to computing, where one finds an application and uses that to create and manipulate a document, the Lisa Office System used a document-centric approach. Files were created by double-clicking generic “paper” files, representing the tearing of a page from a piece of stationery. The files then could be individually named and manipulated.

lisadraw

No, I’ve never claimed to be a good artist – working on a vector graphics illustration with LisaDraw.

There were other distinctive parts of this document-centric model, like the fact that you could not quit applications as you would on a Windows or Unix-like operating system; instead, the applications remained open as long as the application floppy was present in the drive. Files did not have to be manually saved; they could be, as an optional choice, but the default behaviour was to save the files in the background. When the power button was pressed or the floppy disc was ejected, the system would immediately begin cleaning up, meaning that files were preserved and the system was left clean for the next boot or application load. While some parts of this model have later been adopted by other systems, there has still been no system that has really tried to emulate the operation of the Lisa, even when so many hobbyist-focused and open-source operating systems have attempted to recreate the models of, for example, AmigaOS, BeOS and Atari TOS.

Perhaps there are some reasons for that, though. The Lisa was not particularly successful in the marketplace; while the Apple II sold in the millions and the Macintosh became a roaring success in the years to come, the Lisa sold in the tens of thousands. The price of the Lisa didn’t help; it was difficult for companies to justify the cost of the Lisa versus the likes of the IBM PC. However, the performance of the Lisa Office System didn’t help either.

The Macintosh, released a year later with a more powerful processor and a substantially slimmer operating system, often feels quite slow when compared to other operating systems of that general period; the Lisa, with a more sophisticated operating system, suffers from speed issues due to its less powerful processor. To be fair to the Lisa Office System, the slowness doesn’t manifest itself in the same way as it might in a Windows or Unix system, in that the system doesn’t feel like it locks up, and therefore, the system does feel clean in that respect. However, it does feel like a limitation that might have and should have been avoided by using a more powerful processor.

Another limitation of the system comes from the difficulty of programming for it. Relatively little software was written for the Lisa, and most of that was included with the Lisa Office System. As the Lisa Office System covered all of the obvious bases when it came to office software, and the system was certainly not a hacker’s system, there were few places for third-party developers to stake their claim. The Lisa Office System was also written in Pascal, which is not a programming language which is now often considered appropriate for system programming. In order to program for the Lisa, one was forced to use a separate operating system known as the Lisa Workshop and develop software on one Lisa while running it on another. This seems like it would have been tedious and prohibitively expensive for software developers, particularly in the 1980s when many programming studios were rather smaller than they are today.

There are also some other limitations of the Lisa that go outside of hardware or software performance. For a system which seems like it would have been ideal for desktop publishing, the Lisa came with a bizarre lack of typefaces and a limited set of fonts for those typefaces. While the Macintosh came with several typefaces from the very beginning, including the Helvetica and Times typefaces with later revisions (or at least similarly named clones), the Lisa had two typefaces – not really all that impressive for a system with a graphical user interface.

However, for all of those limitations, I don’t feel the Lisa deserved quite the ignominy that it received. After another couple of hardware revisions, including the Macintosh XL, which was named for the Macintosh line due to the addition of a Macintosh ROM along with the MacWorks software giving compatibility with Macintosh programs (although it was still lumbered with the slow 5 MHz processor of the other Lisa computers), the Lisa was dropped by Apple in 1986. Among its users had been NASA, whose extensive use of LisaProject led Apple to develop MacProject for the Macintosh for release in concurrence with the first Macintosh in 1984. The remaining Lisa stock was purchased by Sun Remarketing, who ended up assisting Apple in dumping several thousands of the unsold computers in order to acquire a tax rebate.

What I’ve taken away from my brief experience of emulating the Lisa software is that it feels novel, yet it also has many of the utilities of a modern office system. The document-centric stationery system feels different – not necessarily better or worse – than the more popular application-centric model, and the entire operating system feels very tightly integrated with the application software. I’m not sure I would want to use such a system in my own endeavours – I tend more towards the programmer software tendencies and the hacker’s sensibilities – but as an office system, one could certainly do worse than the Lisa, and it would probably be more intuitive to an office user than Windows once you sufficiently explained how the system works. If you can teach a neophyte with little interest in computing how to use Microsoft Office, then you could certainly teach them how to use the Lisa Office System – and they might actually be more productive on it as well!